RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH MORTALITY FROM OMICRON VARIANT OF SARS-CoV-2 IN REPUBLIC OF NORTH MACEDONIA

  • Dragan Kochinski Institute of Public Health, Skopje, North Macedonia
  • Vesna Velikj Stefanovska Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Ss Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, North Macedonia
  • Svetlana Popovska Kljuseva Center for Public Health in Bitola, North Macedonia
  • Enkela Pollozhani Institute of Public Health in Skopje, North Macedonia
  • Shaban Memeti Institute of Public Health in Skopje, Faculty of Medicine, Ss. Cyril and Methodius in Skopje, North Macedonia

Abstract

In 2019, Wuhan registered an epidemic of a severe form of pneumonia. On January 7, 2020, the pathogen was identified as SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 causes acute and fatal disease with an average mortality rate of 2%. Based on evidences, risk factors include older age, male gender, and ethnicity, as well as presence of comorbidities. Five variants of concern have been identified by WHO. The original variant of Omicron was first reported in Botswana and South Africa in November 2021. The research aimed to analyze the risk factors associated with mortality from Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 in the Republic of North Macedonia. The research was a prospective cross-sectional study that elaborated the mortality from Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 in the Republic of North Macedonia during the period December 2021/2022. The analysis included demographic characteristics, symptomatology, comorbidities, and vaccination status. The analysis showed that the male gender (OR=1.83; 95%CI=1.66-2.02), the age ≥60 (OR=33.98; 95%CI=28.53-40.47), the positive comorbidity status (OR=37.26; 95%CI=30.62-35.54), and hospitalization (OR=362.7; 95%CI=309.7-424.8) significantly positively associated with death from Omicron variant. Complete vaccination and/or booster dose significantly negatively associated with hospitalization and mortality of Omicron variant reducing the probability for hospitalization (46%) and death (56%) respectively. Male patients, older age group and comorbidities positively associated with death from the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2. The results of this study can be used to prepare the national health system for similar future epidemic crises.


Keywords: Omicron SARS-CoV-2, mortality, hospitalization, vaccination

References

1. Sharma A, Ahmad Farouk I, Lal SK. COVID-19: A Review on the Novel Coronavirus Disease Evolution, Transmission, Detection, Control and Prevention. Viruses. 2021 Jan 29;13(2):202. doi: 10.3390/v13020202.
2. Phelan AL, Katz R, Gostin LO. The novel coronavirus originating in Wuhan, China: challenges for global health governance. JAMA. 2020 Jan;323:709–10.
3. Seyed Hosseini E, Riahi Kashani N, Nikzad H, Azadbakht J, Hassani Bafrani H, Haddad Kashani H. The novel coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19): Mechanism of action, detection and recent therapeutic strategies. Virology. 2020 Dec;551:1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2020.08.011.
4. Tian H, Liu Y, Li Y, Wu CH, Chen B, Kraemer MUG, Li B, Cai J, Xu B, Yang Q, Wang B, Yang P, Cui Y, Song Y, Zheng P, Wang Q, Bjornstad ON, Yang R, Grenfell BT, Pybus OG, Dye C. An investigation of transmission control measures during the first 50 days of the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Science. 2020 May 8;368(6491):638-642. doi: 10.1126/science.abb6105.
5. World Health Organization. Listings of WHO’s response to COVID-19. Available from: https ://www.who.int/news/item/29-06-2020-covidtimel ine. Accessed 21 Dec 2020.
6. Matta S, Chopra KK, Arora VK. Morbidity and mortality trends of Covid 19 in top 10 countries. Indian J Tuberc. 2020 Dec;67(4S):S167-S172. doi: 10.1016/j.ijtb.2020.09.031.
7. Saatci D, Ranger TA, Garriga C, et al. Association between race and COVID-19 outcomes among 2.6 million children in England. JAMA Pediatr. 2021;175:928–938. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.1685.
8. Zhang JJ, Dong X, Liu GH, Gao YD. Risk and Protective Factors for COVID-19 Morbidity, Severity, and Mortality. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2023 Feb;64(1):90-107. doi: 10.1007/s12016-022-08921-5. Epub 2022 Jan 19. PMID: 35044620; PMCID: PMC8767775.
9. Fauci AS, Lane HC, Redfield RR. Covid-19—navigating the uncharted. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:1268–1269. doi: 10.1056/NEJMe2002387.
10. Pijls BG, Jolani S, Atherley A et al (2021) Demographic risk factors for COVID-19 infection, severity, ICU admission and death: a meta-analysis of 59 studies. BMJ, (Open) 11:e044640. 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-044640.
11. Australian Bureau of Statistics (2023). COVID-19 mortality by wave. Available at https://www.abs.gov.au/articles/covid-19-mortality-wave (accessed 25 February 2024).
12. Guan WJ, Liang WH, Zhao Y et al (2020) Comorbidity and its impact on 1590 patients with COVID-19 in China: a nationwide analysis. Eur Respir J 55. 10.1183/13993003.00547-2020.
13. Barron E., Bakhai C., Kar P., Weaver A., Bradley D., Ismail H., et al. Associations of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes with COVID-19-related mortality in England: a whole-population study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2020;8:813–822. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30272-2.
14. Hodgson SH, Mansatta K, Mallett G, Harris V, Emary KRW, Pollard AJ. What defines an efficacious COVID-19 vaccine? A review of the challenges assessing the clinical efficacy of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Lancet Infect Dis. 2021;21:e26–e35. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30773-8.
15. Mohammed I, Nauman A, Paul P, Ganesan S, Chen KH, Jalil SMS, Jaouni SH, Kawas H, Khan WA, Vattoth AL, Al-Hashimi YA, Fares A, Zeghlache R, Zakaria D. The efficacy and effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccines in reducing infection, severity, hospitalization, and mortality: a systematic review. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2022 Dec 31;18(1):2027160. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2022.2027160.
16. Le Page M. Vaccines vs variants. New Sci. 2021;250(3336):8–23. doi: 10.1016/S0262-4079(21)00895-2.
17. Dhama K, Nainu F, Frediansyah A, Yatoo MI, Mohapatra RK, Chakraborty S, Zhou H, Islam MR, Mamada SS, Kusuma HI, Rabaan AA, Alhumaid S, Mutair AA, Iqhrammullah M, Al-Tawfiq JA, Mohaini MA, Alsalman AJ, Tuli HS, Chakraborty C, Harapan H. Global emerging Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2: Impacts, challenges and strategies. J Infect Public Health. 2023 Jan;16(1):4-14. doi: 10.1016/j.jiph.2022.11.024.
18. Nyberg T, Ferguson NM, Nash SG, Webster HH, Flaxman S, Andrews N, Hinsley W, Bernal JL, Kall M, Bhatt S, Blomquist P, Zaidi A, Volz E, Aziz NA, Harman K, Funk S, Abbott S; COVID-19 Genomics UK (COG-UK) consortium; Hope R, Charlett A, Chand M, Ghani AC, Seaman SR, Dabrera G, De Angelis D, Presanis AM, Thelwall S. Comparative analysis of the risks of hospitalisation and death associated with SARS-CoV-2 omicron (B.1.1.529) and delta (B.1.617.2) variants in England: a cohort study. Lancet. 2022 Apr 2;399(10332):1303-1312. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(22)00462-7.
19. Singh P., Bhaskar Y., Verma P., Rana S., Goel P., Kumar S., et al. Impact of comorbidity on patients with COVID-19 in India: a nationwide analysis. Front Public Health. 2023;10 doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.1027312.
Published
2024-04-30
How to Cite
KOCHINSKI, Dragan et al. RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH MORTALITY FROM OMICRON VARIANT OF SARS-CoV-2 IN REPUBLIC OF NORTH MACEDONIA. Journal of Morphological Sciences, [S.l.], v. 7, n. 1, p. 33-39, apr. 2024. ISSN 2545-4706. Available at: <https://jms.mk/jms/article/view/vol7no1-5>. Date accessed: 20 june 2024.
Section
Articles