NONENZYMATIC GLYCOLISATION AND GINGIVAL TISSUES: A REVIEW
Periodontal diseases are multifactorial conditions caused by infection with pathogenic bacteria and inflammation of tissue. Nonenzymatic glycolisation play a key role in treatment of periodontitis because of the many scientific evidence that advanced-glycation end products can modify many metabolism pathways that can change way of gingival tissue inflammatory and tissue damages. There is no direct evidence for the presence of AGEs in the periodontal ligament but, valuable results that are based on the studies in chronic periodontal patients support a potential role for protein glycation in the aetiology and severity of this disease. This study highlights the need for further investigation on the presence of AGEs in the periodontal tissues and the pathogenic mechanisms underlying periodontal diseases in order to develop prevention and treatment modalities for this dysfunction.
Keywords: Nonenzymatic glycolisation, AGEs, RAGEs, Periodontitis, gingival tissue.
2. Li X, Kolltveit KM, Tronstad L, Olsen I. Systemic diseases caused by oral infection. Clin Microbiol Rev 2000; 13:547-58.
3. Noack B, Jachmann I, Roscher S, Sieber L, Kopprasch S, Luck C, Hanefeld M, Hoffmann T. Metabolic diseases and their possible link to risk indicators of periodontitis. J Periodontol 2000; 71: 898-903.
4. Younessi P, Yoonessi A. Advanced glycation end-products and their receptor-mediated roles: inflammation and oxidative stress. Iran J Med Sci. 2011 Sep;36(3):154-66.
5. Yaw Kuang Chuah, Rusliza Basir, Herni Talib, Tung Hing Tie, Norshariza Nordin, "Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products and Its Involvement in Inflammatory Diseases", International Journal of Inflammation, vol. 2013.
6. P.J. Thornalley; Glyoxalase I – structure, function and a critical role in the enzymatic defence against glycation. Biochem Soc Trans 1 December 2003; 31 (6): 1343–1348.
7. Mahtab U. AHMED, Elisabeth BRINKMANN FRYE, Thorsten P. DEGENHARDT, Suzanne R. THORPE, John W. BAYNES; Nε-(Carboxyethyl)lysine, a product of the chemical modification of proteins by methylglyoxal, increases with age in human lens proteins. Biochem J 1 June 1997
8. Nicole Verzijl, Jeroen DeGroot, Suzanne R. Thorpe, Ruud A. Bank, J. Nikki Shaw, Timothy J. Lyons, Johannes W.J. Bijlsma, Floris P.J.G. Lafeber, John W. Baynes, Johan M. TeKoppele,Effect of Collagen Turnover on the Accumulation of Advanced Glycation End Products,Journal of Biological Chemistry,Volume 275, Issue 50,2000,Pages 39027-39031.
9. Nobutaka Ohgami, Ryoji Nagai, Mamoru Ikemoto, Hiroyuki Arai, Akira Miyazaki, Hideki Hakamata, Seikoh Horiuchi, Hitoshi Nakayama,CD36, serves as a receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (AGE),Journal of Diabetes and its Complications,Volume 16, Issue 1,2002,Pages 56-59.
10. Schmidt AM, Yan SD, Yan SF, Stern DM. The multiligand receptor RAGE as a progression factor amplifying immune and inflammatory responses. J Clin Invest. 2001 Oct;108(7):949-55. doi: 10.1172/JCI14002. PMID: 11581294; PMCID: PMC200958.
11. Kay Hofmann, Philipp Bucher, Laurent Falquet, Amos Bairoch, The PROSITE database, its status in 1999, Nucleic Acids Research, Volume 27, Issue 1, 1 January 1999, Pages 215–219.
12. Brasier, A.R. The NF-κB regulatory network. Cardiovasc Toxicol 6, 111–130 (2006).
13. Triantafyllos Chavakis, Angelika Bierhaus, Peter P. Nawroth,RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products): a central player in the inflammatory response,Microbes and Infection,Volume 6, Issue 13,2004,Pages 1219-1225.
14. Tobias Müller, Sven Rahmann, Marc Rehmsmeier, Non-symmetric score matrices and the detection of homologous transmembrane proteins , Bioinformatics, Volume 17, Issue suppl_1, June 2001, Pages S182–S189,
15. Demmer RT, Trinquart L, Zuk A, Fu BC, Blomkvist J, Michalowicz BS, Ravaud P, Desvarieux M (2013) The influence of anti-infective periodontal treatment on C-reactive protein: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PLoS One 8: e77441
16. Offenbacher S. Periodontal diseases: pathogenesis. Ann Periodontol. 1996;1:821–878.
17. Graves DT, Liu R, Alikhani M, Al-Mashat H, Trackman PC. Diabetes-enhanced Inflammation and Apoptosis Impact on Periodontal Pathology. Journal of Dental Research. 2006;85(1):15-21.
18. Preshaw, P.M., Alba, A.L., Herrera, D. et al. Periodontitis and diabetes: a two-way relationship. Diabetologia 55, 21–31 (2012).
19. Shuko Takeda, Naoyuki Sato, Kozue Uchio-Yamada, Kyoko Sawada, Takanori Kunieda, Daisuke Takeuchi, Hitomi Kurinami, Mitsuru Shinohara, Hiromi Rakugi, Ryuichi Morishita. Diabetes-accelerated memory dysfunction via cerebrovascular inflammation and Aβ deposition in an Alzheimer mouse model with diabetes.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Apr 2010, 107 (15) 7036-7041; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1000645107
20. Zizzi, A, Tirabassi, G, Aspriello, SD, Piemontese, M, Rubini, C, Lucarini, G. Gingival advanced glycation end‐products in diabetes mellitus‐associated chronic periodontitis: an immunohistochemical study. J Periodont Res 2012.
21. Katz, J., Bhattacharyya, I., Farkhondeh‐Kish, F., Perez, F.M., Caudle, R.M. and Heft, M.W. (2005), Expression of the receptor of advanced glycation end products in gingival tissues of type 2 diabetes patients with chronic periodontal disease: a study utilizing immunohistochemistry and RT‐PCR. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 32: 40-44.
22. Brownlee M. Glycation products and the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Diabetes Care. 1992;15:1835–1843.
23. Seppälä B, Sorsa T, Ainamo J. Morphometric analysis of cellular and vascular changes in gingival connective tissue in long-term insulin-dependent diabetes. J Periodontol. 1997;68:1237–1245.
24. Lalla E, Lamster IB, Drury S, Fu C, Schmidt AM. Hyperglycemia, glycoxidation and receptor for advanced glycation endproducts: potential mechanisms underlying diabetic complications, including diabetes-associated periodontitis. Periodontol 2000. 2000;23:50–62.