• Gabriela Bushinoska Ivanova University Clinical Center Mother Teresa, Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic, Skopje, R. of North Macedonia
  • Jasna Bushinovska University Clinical Center Mother Teresa, Clinic of Anesthesiology Reanimation and Intensive Care, Skopje, R. of North Macedonia
  • Jordancho Ivanov Acibadem Sistina Hospital, Gynecology and Obstetrics Department, Skopje, R. of North Macedonia


 Most of the neonatal deaths at NICU, in the neonatal period of life 0-28 days after delivery are results of preterm births and complications from prematurity. Preterm birth is a birth before 37 g.w. of pregnancy. Neonatal mortality is a death among live- born new-borns in the first four weeks of life after delivery. Prematurity and low birth weight significantly participate in neonatal deaths at NICU. The purpose of the study is to show the participation of prematurity and low birth weight in neonatal mortality, between new-borns admitted and treated at NICU at the GOC-Skopje, in the period of seven years. The retrospective analysis showed the participation of prematurity and low birth weight in neonatal mortality at NICU, at GOC- Skopje in the period of seven years- 2011-2017. The data was collected from the Data basis of NICU and medical histories of new-borns at NICU, during this period. In the period of seven years there were 36706 live-born new-borns at GOC-Skopje. 4810 of them or 13.18% were admitted and treated at NICU. Neonatal mortality at NICU in the seven years period was 912 new-borns, or 19% from all neonates admitted at NICU. Most of them 867, or 95% of neonatal deaths were preterm births or new-borns delivered before 37 g.w. of pregnancy. The leading causes for neonatal death in new-borns treated at NICU were complications due to prematurity and low birth weight in new-borns, in the period of seven years 2011-2017. Prematurity and low birth weight participate in the most of neonatal deaths at NICU and should be prevented in the future.

Key words: low birth weight, prematurity, preterm birth, neonatal mortality, GOC-Skopje, NICU



1.Liu L, Oza S, Hogan D, Chu Y, Perin J, Zhu J, et al. Global, regional, and national causes of under-5 mortality in 2000-15: an updated systematic analysis with implications for the Sustainable Development Goals. Lancet. 2016;388(10063):3027-35.
2.Blencowe H, Cousens S, Oestergaard M, Chou D, Moller AB, Narwal R, Adler A, Garcia CV, Rohde S, Say L, Lawn JE. National, regional and worldwide estimates of preterm birth. The Lancet, June 2012. 9;379(9832):2162-72. Estimates from 2010.
3.UNICEF, WHO, The World Bank, UN; New York, USA: 2014. Levels and trends in child mortality. Report.
4.Blencowe H., Cousens S., Chou D., Oestergaard M., Say L., Moller A.-B., Kinney M., Lawn J. Born Too Soon: The global epidemiology of 15 million preterm births. Reprod. Health. 2013;10 doi: 10.1186/1742-4755-10-S1-S2. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
5.Norman J.E., Shennan A.H. Prevention of preterm birth—Why can’t we do any better? Lancet. 2013;381:184–189. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61956-4. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
6.March of Dimes, PMNCH, Save the Children and WHO. Born Too Soon: The Global Action Report on Preterm Birth. World Health Organization; Geneva, Switzerland: 2012. [Google Scholar]
7.Centres for Disease Control and Prevention Reproductive Health—Maternal and Infant Health. [(accessed on 8 December 2016)];2016 Available online:
8.National Academy of Sciences . Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences and Prevention. National Academic Press (US); Washington, DC, USA: 2007. Medical Report. [Google Scholar]
9.Stoll B.J., Hansen N.I., Bell E.F., Shankaran S., Laptook A.R., Walsh M.C., Hale E.C., Newman N.S., Schibler K., Carlo W.A., et al. Neonatal outcomes of extremely preterm infants from the NICHD Neonatal Research Network. Pediatrics. 2010;126:443–456. doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-2959. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
10.World Health Organization (WHO). Born too soon: the global action report on preterm birth [Internet]. Geneva; 2012 [cited 2014 June 20]. Available from:
11.World Health Organization. Care of the preterm and/or low-birth-weight new-born [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2013 March 7]. Available from:
12.Ndombo PK, Ekei QM, Tochie JN et al. A cohort analysis of neonatal hospital mortality rate and predictors of neonatal mortality in a sub-urban hospital of Cameroon. Ital J Pediatr. 2017; 43(1):1–8.
13.Worku B, Kassie A, Mekasha A et al. Predictors of early neonatal mortality at a neonatal intensive care unit of specialized referral teaching hospital in Ethiopia. Ethiop.J. Health Dev. 2012;26(3):200-207.
14.Sankaran K, Chien LY, Walker R et al. Variation in mortality rates among Canadian neonatal intensive care units. J Can Med Assoc 2002;166:173-178.
15.Zullini MT, Bonati M, Sanvito E et al. Survival at nine intensive care units in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Paulista Collaborative Group on Neonatal Care. Rev Panam Salud Public 1997;2:303-309.
16.Carissa Stephens at al. Premature baby survival rates. American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. May 29 2020.
17.UNICEF Data: Monitoring the situation of children and women. Key demographic indicators for North Macedonia: Under-Five Mortality Rate, Population.2019.
18.LaVone E.S, Craig E.R, Gary L.D. et al. Preventing Preterm Birth and Neonatal Mortality: Exploring the Epidemiology, Causes and Interventions. Seminars in Perinatology. Volume 34, Issue 6, December 2010.
How to Cite
IVANOVA, Gabriela Bushinoska; BUSHINOVSKA, Jasna; IVANOV, Jordancho. PREMATURITY AND LOW BIRTH WEIGHT PARTICIPATION IN NEONATAL DEATHS AT GYNECOLOGY AND OBSTETRICS CLINIC IN SKOPJE IN THE PERIOD OF SEVEN YEARS. Journal of Morphological Sciences, [S.l.], v. 3, n. 3, p. 3-12, dec. 2020. ISSN 2545-4706. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 19 may 2024.