• Irina Lazarevska Bogdanova University Clinic for eye diseases, Faculty of Medicine, University „ Ss. Cyril and Methodius”, Skopje, R.of North Macedonia


Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy, most commonly characterized by morphological changes in the papillae of the optic nerve and retinal nerve fibers, without the presence of other eye diseases or congenital anomalies. The risk factors for glaucoma can be divided into systemic and local. A case-control study was performed, which included patients aged 25 to 70. The study was conducted at the Clinic for Eye Diseases, in Skopje, in the Glaucoma Cabinet, in the period from 2015-2019.The study included 100 patients, who were divided into two groups. An exhaustive medical history was made about the involved patients. Regarding the systemic diseases in the patients included in our study, most of the patients 24.00% had increased blood pressure, 10.00% patients had heart disease, 5.00% patients had diabetes and the other category (10 different diseases) was registered in 10.00% patients. Due to a large standard error, the analysis excluded diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease, and the category "others" was excluded because it contains various systemic diseases. It was found that patients who had heart disease 7.09 times had a slightly (p = 0.071) higher risk of glaucoma than patients who did not have systemic disease. Patients who had high blood pressure and diabetes by 1.97 times had a slightly higher risk (p = 0.439) of glaucoma than patients without systemic disease. The lowest predictive value for glaucoma prediction was registered in patients with increased blood pressure (0.93 times), insignificant (p = 0.883).

Key words: systemic diseases, glaucoma, association


1.Loyo-Berríos NI, Blustein JN. Primary-open glaucoma and myopia: a narrative review.WMJ. 2007; 106(2):85-95.
2.K. Blazevska - Evaluation of the effects of trabeculectomy, with and without the use of 5FU -DD Skopje 2009.
3.Robert N; Weinreb MD; Tin Aung MD; Felipe A MD, Phd. The Pathophysiology and treatment of Glaucoma. JAMA 2014;311(18):1901-911.
4.Daniela Dimitrova Radojcic- Prevalence and causes of blindness in the Macedonian adult population, Jurnal of special education and rehabilitation; 2017;18(1/2):17-25.
5.Cedrone C, Mancino R, Cerulli A, Cesareo M, Nucci C, Epidemiology of primary glaucoma: prevalence, incidence, and blinding effects. Prog Brain Res. 2008; 173():3-14.
6.Burr JM, Mowatt G, Hernandez R, Siddiqui MA, Cook J, Lourenco T, Ramsay C, Vale L, Fraser
C, Azuara-Blanco A, Deeks J, Carins J, Wormald R, McPherson S, Rabindranath K, Grant A. The clinical effectiveness and cost-efectiveness of screening for open angle glaucoma:a systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess.2007;11(41):181-190.
7.McMonnies CW. Intraocular pressure spikes in keratectasia, axial myopia and glaucoma.Optom
Vis Sci. 2008; 85(10):1018-26;
8.Sia DI, Edussuriya K, Sennanayake S, Senaratne T, Selva D, Casson RJ4.Prevalence of and risk factors for primary open-angle glaucoma in central Sri Lanka: the Kandy eye study. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010; 17(4):211-6.
9.Werne A, Harris A, Moore D, Benzion I, Siesky B.The circadian variations in systemic blood
pressure,ocular perfusion pressure,and ocular blood flow:risc factor for glaucoma. Surv Ophtalmol.2008;53(6):559-67.
10.Sacca SC, Bolognesi C, Battistella , Bagnis A, Izzotti A.Gene-enviroment interactions in ocular
diseases.Mulat Res.2008.
11.Mackey DA. Gillies lecture:dissecting glaucoma: understanding molecular risc factors.ClinExperimentOphtalmolog.2008;36(5):403-9.
12. Salaun N, Delyfer MN, Rougier MB, Korobelnik JF. Assesment risc factors for retinal vein
occlusions in patients under 60 years of age.Fr.Ophtalmol.2007;30(9):918-23.
13.Stewart WC, Kolker AE, Sharpe ED, Day DG, Konstas AG, Hollo G, Astakhov YS, Teus MA,
Stewart JA. Long-term progression at individual mean intraocular pressure levels in primary open-angle glaucoma.Eur J Ophtal.2008;18(5)765-70.
14.Stewart WC, Stewart JA, Nasser QJ, Mychaskiw MA. Cost-efectivness of treating ocular
15.Rivieara L, Bell NP, Feldman RM. Risc factors for primary open angle glaucoma
progression:what we know and what we need to know. Curr Opin Ophtalmol.2008;19(2):1026.
16.Alex W, Johny W, Catherine M, Tze L, Lisa S. Systemic disease associations of familiar and
sporadic glaucoma. PubMed. 2010;88(1):70-74.
17.Fotis T, MRoy W, Alon H, Elephteris A. Prevalence of Open-angle glaucoma in Greece, The
Thessaloniki Eye Study. PubMed. 2007:144(4):511-9.
18.Aiko I, Japan Glaucoma Society. The prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma in
Japanese,The Tajimi Study. PubMed. 2004;111(9):1641-8.
19.MC Leske, Heijl A, Hyman L, Bengtsson B. Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial,
20.AfekhideE, MalachiE, Valentina O. Vascular Risc Factors For Open Angle Glaucoma in African
Eyes. Midd East Afric J. 2009;16(3):146-50.
21. Sommer A, Tielsch JM Risk factors for open-angle glaucoma: the Barbados Eye Study Salim s.The role of Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma J. Ophtalmology 2013;28(3);113-125.
How to Cite
BOGDANOVA, Irina Lazarevska. THE EFFECT OF CERTAIN SYSTEMIC DISEASES ON THE OCCURENCE AND PROGRESSION OF GLAUCOMA. Journal of Morphological Sciences, [S.l.], v. 3, n. 3, p. 13-22, dec. 2020. ISSN 2545-4706. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 28 jan. 2021.