APPLICATION OF INTRAGASTRIC BALLOONS IN OBESITY TREATMENT
Obesity is a complex, chronic, metabolic disease characterized by excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in the body and numerous side effects on health. Endoscopic bariatric therapy (EBT) is just one method of treating obesity. Of the many EBT devices, intragastric balloons (IGBs), which take up some space in the stomach, are the most widely used in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the use of IGB in the treatment of obesity and to compare the results of the use of two different IGBs, Spatz and Edd-ball. The study included 30 overweight patients with BMI (body mass index) between 25 and 40 kg /m2, treated with IGB application. All patients were monitored for a period of 6 months from IGB placement until its removal. Number of kilograms lost 6 months after IGB application, BMI change, the presence of comorbidities before and after the intervention, complications durig the intervention and patient satisfaction with the success of the procedure were analyzed. A comparison was also made between the results obtained with the two different types of IGB (Spatz and Edd-ball). The average weight loss 6 months after IGB application was 15.3 kg. Comparison of BMI values before and 6 months after the intervention showed a statistically significant decrease in BMI after the intervention (p = 0.00). The comparison of the lost kilograms in relation to the type of IGB applied did not show a statistically significant difference between the two types of IGB used. Changes in comorbidities after the intervention did not show statistically significant differences.Despite the limitations of this study, which was performed on a small number of patients, the use of IGB has proven to be an effective method of weight loss. No serious complications or fatalities were reported during the procedure.
Keywords: obesity, intragastric balloon, therapy, endoscopy.
2. Ng M, Fleming T, Robinson M, et al. Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2013. Lancet 2014;384:766-81.
3. Segula D. Complications of obesity in adults: a short review of the literature. Malawi Med J 2014;26:20- 4.
4. Daniel S, Soleymani T, Garvey WT. A complications-based clinical staging of obesity to guide treatment modality and intensity. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2013;20:377-88.
5. Nguyen NT, Vu S, Kim E, Bodunova N, Phelan MJ. Trends in utilizationof bariatric surgery, 2009-2012. Surg Endosc 2016;30:2723-7.
6. Vargas EJ, Rizk M, Bazerbachi F, Abu Dayyeh BK. Medical devices forobesity treatment: endoscopic bariatric therapies. Med Clin North Am 2018;102:149-63.
7. Sullivan S, Edmundowicz SA, Thompson CC. Endoscopic bariatric andmetabolic therapies:new and emerging technologies. Gastroenterology 2017;152:1791-801.
8. Kim SH, Chun HJ, Choi HS, Kim ES, Keum B, Jeen YT. Current status of intragastric balloon for obesity treatment. World J Gastroenterol 2016;22:5495-504.
9. Gleysteen JJ. A history of intragastric balloons. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2016;12:430-5.
10. Nieben OG, Harboe H. Intragastric balloon as an artificial bezoar for treatment of obesity. Lancet 1982;1:198-9.
11. Gomez V, Woodman G, Abu Dayyeh BK. Delayed gastric emptying as a proposed mechanism of action during intragastric balloon therapy:results of a prospective study. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2016;24:1849-53.
12. Swidnicka-Siergiejko A, Wroblewski E, Andrzej D. Endoscopic treatmentof obesity. Can J Gastroenterol 2011;25:627-33.
13. Kentish SJ, Page AJ. The role of gastrointestinal vagal afferent fibres inobesity. J Physiol 2015;593:775-86.
14. Machytka E, Klvana P, Kornbluth A, et al. Adjustable intragastric balloons:a 12-month pilot trial in endoscopic weight loss management.Obes Surg 2011;21:1499-507.
15. Brooks J, Srivastava ED, Mathus-Vliegen EM. One-year adjustable intragastricballoons: results in 73 consecutive patients in the U.K. ObesSurg 2014;24:813-9.
16. Russo T, Aprea G, Formisano C, et al. BioEnterics intragastric balloon(BIB) versus spatz adjustable balloon system (ABS): our experience inthe elderly. Int J Surg 2017;38:138-40.
17. Daniel F, Abou Fadel C, Houmani Z, Salti N. Spatz 3 adjustable intragastricballoon: long-term safety concerns. Obes Surg 2016;26:159-60.
18. Buzga M, Kupka T, Siroky M, et al. Short-term outcomes of the new intragastric balloon End-Ball® for treatment of obesity. Wideochir Inne Tech Maloinwazyjne 2016;11:229-35.
19. Keren D, Rainis T. Intragastric balloons for overweight populations-1 year post removal. Obes Surg 2018;28:2368-73.